Getting Started

Security is an complex topic and it is impossible to address everything. This document lists a number of security recommendations to help ensure the safe running of your instances on the cloud. Security is important, so please follow these.

The NecTAR team conduct routine and random audits to determine the integrity of machine images and running instances. If you have discovered a critical security flaw, or believe your machine has been compromised, please email; or for non-urgent security questions go to NeCTAR support to lodge a ticket.

Mail Servers

If you run a mail server, make sure it only listens on the localhost IP address ( For many clients, if you don't specify an SMTP server when sending email, it will use the recipients SMTP server automatically. This is probably what you want. Some nodes (Qld) disallow this and require you to use their SMTP server for outgoing mail.

Enable Automatic Updates

All operating systems have the ability to apply updates automatically, and its easy to turn this on. Please do so, and ask us if you need help.

Upgrade your kernel

Some updates, such as a kernel upgrade, require a reboot of the instance. Please schedule this into your regular maintenance.

No open recursive name servers

If you are running a DNS server, please ensure you only allow recursion from trusted hosts.

Control or disable access to your NTP server

If you run an NTP server, limit which systems can access it. Disable the 'monlist' command as this can be used as a denial of service vector on your system. For info about DDoS by NTP, see this article on Cloudflare

Subscribe to security announcements for your OS

If there is a security problem with your Operating System, you need to find out as soon as possible. Find the appropriate mailing list and keep an eye out for anything that requires urgent action. As soon as new security bugs are detected, you need to execute security upgrade immediately.

Run a restrictive firewall

Your instances should be configured so they allow the minimum access required to run their service. Please use a host-based firewall, in conjunction with the cloud-provided firewall to manage access.

Disable/Remove unneeded accounts

Keep an eye on the user accounts enabled on your system. Some applications create default accounts which are insecure. You may also open a temporary user account to allow quick login for a task and leave it forever. This may lead to security issue later, and you need to regular check and delete these user accounts.

Disable SSH password login - use keys

With enough time and compute power it is possible for passwords to be brute force attacked. The average SSH server deals with thousands of such attacks every week, so use ssh keys. Ubuntu provides some good documentation for it. The standard NeCTAR images have password authentication for SSH disabled by default. You are advised not to enable this.

Don't store keys on the image

The cloud provides a metadata service so you can download keys on boot, so you don't need to copy keys manually. This ensures that if your key is compromised, not all running instances of that image are compromised.

Install SSH attack banning tools

Install a tools like fail2ban or denyhosts, which checks log files for attempted breaches and then blocks malicious IP addresses.

Disable unneeded services

Know what services run on your image, and disable the unneeded ones before you upload it. This reduces the attack surface.

Use Encrypted Communications

Wherever possible, use encrypted communications to avoid attacks which intercept data.

Use best-practices for logging

Make sure that services are logging to a secure location, that is as tamperproof as possible. If logging remotely, ensure that it is done over a secure channel so that eavesdroppers cannot monitor what is happening on your instance.

Only open ports for required services

By default, virtual machines in NeCTAR has closed all ports, so in order to make services available to public, you need to open certain ports for it. Before you open a open, you need to think carefully about what service associated with it and what is the intention. Never open ports for non-service binded to it.

Only grant sufficient permission to user account

When creating user account, make sure only permission sufficient for its use is granted. Never grant extra permission if it is not needed.

Disable root access from SSH and use sudo if possible

Disable root user SSH login and setup user account with sudo permission to perform administrator tasks.

Use other port for SSH

The SSH service on the virtual machine uses port 22 by default. This port is well-known and can attract many attackers. Use a custom ssh port other than 22 will improve security. Be noted, the port number below 1024 is well reserved and shouldn't be used for SSH.

Read security guide for each service installed

Before and after you install a new service on your virtual machine, you need to check the service security guide to perform any required steps to harden the service security.